Explain the various stages of system development life cycle (SDLC).
What is the System development Life Cycle ?
We are getting data from internal and external sources. But most of the time, these data don’t have a value. So, we need to add a value to those data for make relevant information. Information Systems have a way of converting data into relevant information to make a definite decision. Information Systems help for the success of the day-to-day activities of people. Therefore, both government and private organizations are building new systems or upgrading existing information systems to achieve their desired goals.
Building an information system is a difficult task. The Amount of the time it takes, the cost, expected outputs might be uncertain.
There are so many ways to build an information system. It is also a repetitive process. Animals have a life cycle and they evolve through it. This feature is also found in Information Systems. We can introduce “System Development Life Cycle” (SDLC) as a one of methods used to develop the information system.
Stages of system development life cycle?
First of all, system designers give their attention to the system. Then, they analyze all the parts and levels of the entire system. Now I am going to explain the various stages of system development life cycle.
There are 7 stages in system development life cycle (SDLC)
- Systems Investigation
- Systems Analysis
- Systems Design
- Systems Development
- Systems Testing
- Systems Implementation
- Systems Maintenance
This Step stars from the time you come up with ideas for a new system or develop proposals or an existing system. In this stage we get a complete understanding of the system to determine the need to create a system. For that, we are doing investigations through two sections.
* Preliminary Investigations
Here, we identify the system and identify its problem.
* Feasibility Study
Here, system designers are doing eligibility tests and gives detailed review of how well the system suits to the organization or the people.
Based on feasibility report, If the project committee is satisfied with the need for a new system, the project committee will decide to conduct a detailed review of the report. Accordingly, the facts presented through the feasibility report are further investigated. The purpose of the new system, related subject area, physical and human resources need, potential problems in developing the new system are specially considered.
In addition, the system analysis process gathers detailed information about the organization’s structure, management levels and operating levels. Because, the proposed new system should meet the needs of managers and users.
That is, in this stage, the system’s requirements are reviewed in detailed by collecting data converting data into information.
System Design comes as a result of the Feasibility Analysis and System Analysis.System design can be introduced in two main types.
- Logical System Design
It describes how the system’s data, information, processes and files are logically linked. For this, following methods are used.
- Systems Flow Diagram
- Data Flow Diagram
- Physical Systems Diagram
Here, designers are looking at the following facts.
- System interface design
Information about System Design is well documented.
The entire system is divided into modules according to designing procedures and distributed to programmers. Programmers create application software using proper computer languages. After all the modules created, combine these modules with a pre-configured interface to build the entire system. The next step is to test this system.
The successful system will be run at this stage. In this stage the entire system should be documented. And every user should made aware of how to use the system.
we will test the software to verify that it is built as the specifications given by the client. After checking the system, the software is delivered to the user
After testing the new computer system and correcting all the errors, the system will be installed at the client’s institution.
Four common methods to implement a system
- Direct Implementation
- Parallel Implementation
- Phased implementation
- Pilot Implementation
Once the new system in installed, there may be problems which can occur when running the system. The specialty of a computer system is that it must be constantly updated with the advances in technology.
During the System Maintenance stage, the system maintenance committee reviews the changes that affect the system and makes recommendations to the management of the company.
There are also several criteria that the system maintenance committee and the management of the company should pay attention to. The purpose, efficiency, productivity, technology, cost, security, and benefits of a system.